Its western border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. This vast mainland portion of the province is a world of towering mountains, massive rock faces, and an infinite supply of … The Labrador Boundary Dispute was a Quebec-Newfoundland and Labrador border dispute that started in 1927. Known as "the heart of the Big Land", the area's population comprises people from all groups and regions of Labrador. Newfoundland and Labrador Province is situated in the north easternmost part of Canada, and is one of four provinces overlooking the Atlantic Ocean. @nlliberals RT @PremierofNL: What a great day for Newfoundland and Labrador. Newfoundland and Labrador Province, Canada. Those records are in the custody of the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador. These forces have produced a highly complex geologic structure, with ancient rocks of Europe and Africa on the east, newer Appalachian rocks on the west, and the bed of the ancient ocean squeezed up between them. A whaling ship, the San Juan, sank there in 1565 and was raised in 1978.[5]. The province’s two main components—Newfoundland island and Labrador—must be treated as separate physiographic regions. Lavrador in Portuguese means "farmer". Their decision set the Labrador boundary mostly along the coastal watershed, with part being defined by the 52nd parallel north. The Labrador Coast boasts ten microclimates, including subarctic tundra, high boreal forest, string bog and coastal barrens. It is the primarily continental portion of the province and constitutes 71% of the province's area but is home to only 6% of the province's population. January 6—the Feast of the Epiphany, and the liturgical end of the Christmas season—is also known as Old Christmas Day in many parts of Newfoundland and Labrador. Although a highway link has, as of 16 December 2009, been completed across Labrador, this route is somewhat longer than a proposed Quebec North Shore highway that presently does not exist. Alistair Fraser {fra98] notes: . Winters are long, cold, and extremely snowy, due to the Icelandic Low. In 1809 Labrador had been transferred from Lower Canada to Newfoundland Colony but the inland boundary of Labrador had never been precisely stated. These magnificent moose are due primarily to the location of the lodge. Home to over 10,000 black bears, Newfoundland and Labrador is truly bear country. Deposits at Mont Wright, Schefferville, Labrador City, and Wabush drove industrial development and human settlement in the area during the second half of the 20th century. Nunatsiavut is an Inuit self-government region in Labrador created on June 23, 2000. Muskrat Falls is 45 km (30 miles) west of Happy Valley-Goose Bay on the Grand River (Newfoundland name: Churchill River). As part of Newfoundland since 1809, Labrador was still being disputed by Quebec until the British resolved their border in 1927. Pop. The province's active caseload … Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? In 1499 and 1500, the Portuguese explorers João Fernandes Lavrador and Pro de Barcelos reached what was probably now Labrador, which is believed to be the origin of its name. [19], This article is about the region in Canada. Central Labrador extends from the shores of Lake Melville into the interior. These are real trophy moose – mature bulls with stunning racks. Labrador also shares a small land border with the Canadian territory of Nunavut on Killiniq Island. In 1542 Basque mariners came ashore at a natural harbour on the northeast coast of the Strait of Belle Isle. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it is composed of the insular region of Newfoundland and the continental region of Labrador to the northwest. The Labrador boundary dispute is settled. Ron Penney is former city manager for the City of St. John’s and a former Newfoundland and Labrador deputy minister of justice. The North Coast is the most isolated region of Labrador, with snowmobiles, boats, and planes being the only modern modes of transportation. Also don't underestimate the power of the largely uninhabited Newfoundland interior. These fisheries have been the single most important factor in shaping the history and character of the land and its people. These "highways" are so called only because of their importance to the region; they would be better described as roads, and are not completely paved. The hydroelectric dam at Churchill Falls is the second-largest underground power station in the world. Central Labrador is also home to Happy Valley – Goose Bay. A fishing village on Conception Bay, Newfoundland island, Canada. The situation was complicated by a series of changes after 1763. Most of the supply is bought by Hydro-Québec under a long-term contract. One of Newfoundland's conditions for joining Confederation in 1949 was that this boundary be entrenched in the Canadian constitution. Quebec in April 2009 announced major upgrades to Route 389 to be carried out. We’ll land our Zodiacs at the stunning 56 km beach known as the Wonderstrands. Formerly, Labrador was part of a riding that included part of the Island of Newfoundland. At Arluk, Keith estimates that the biggest they've seen is 54 inches. Thus, the material that lies underneath the thin layer of today’s soil is generally glacial debris or marine sediments exposed by postglacial uplift. The coast was eventually defined as running from Blanc Sablon to Cape Chidley. It is officially called Newfoundland and Labrador. Early settlement in Labrador was tied to the sea as demonstrated by the Montagnais (or Innu) and Inuit, although these peoples also made significant forays throughout the interior. Labrador, with an area of 113,641 square miles (294,330 square km), is geologically part of the Canadian Shield, which comprises some of the world’s oldest rocks. Its capital city, St. John’s (on Newfoundland), for instance, is closer to the coast of Ireland than it is to Winnipeg, Manitoba. The mountains stretch along the coast from Port Manvers to Cape Chidley, the northernmost point of Labrador. During the Second World War and the Cold War, the base was also home to American, British, and later German, Dutch, and Italian detachments. [9] While this border has not been formally accepted by the Quebec government, the Henri Dorion Commission (Commission d'étude sur l'intégrité du territoire du Québec) concluded in the early 1970s that Quebec no longer has a legal claim to Labrador.[10]. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. For the first seven decades or so of the sixteenth century, the name Labrador was sometimes also applied to what we know as Greenland. Newfoundland is an island; Labrador is an adjoining mainland coastal region which abuts Quebec.Newfoundland is fairly lightly populated, but Labrador is extremely sparsely populated. The Lower Churchill Project will develop the remaining potential of the river and supply it to provincial consumers. As Canada and Newfoundland were separate Dominions, but both within the British Empire, the matter was referred to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council[9] (in London). [8] Newfoundland argued it extended to the height of land, while Canada, stressing the historical use of the term "Coasts of Labrador", argued the boundary was 1 statute mile (1.6 km) inland from the high-tide mark. The island, roughly triangular in shape and with an area (excluding associated islands) of 42,031 square miles (108,860 square km), is part of the Appalachian geologic province of North America, in which the landforms run from southwest to northeast and are characterized by continental drift, volcanic action, crustal deformation, ice erosion, and deposition. However, in 1809 the British Imperial government detached Labrador from Lower Canada for transfer to the separate, self-governing Newfoundland Colony. [11], [The ministers reiterate that no Quebec government has ever formally recognised the drawing of the border between Quebec and Newfoundland in the Labrador peninsula according to the opinion rendered by the London Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1927. Labrador was within New France mostly by 1748. The highlands above the Churchill Falls were once an ancient hunting ground for the Innu First Nations and settled trappers of Labrador. For the dog breed, see, geographic and cultural region of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Place in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, Commission d'étude sur l'intégrité du territoire du Québec. Newfoundland and Labrador, province of Canada composed of the island of Newfoundland and a larger mainland sector, Labrador, to the northwest. It is the largest and northernmost geographical region in Atlantic Canada. European settlement was largely concentrated in coastal communities, particularly those south of St. Lewis and Cape Charles, and are among Canada's oldest European settlements. The island of Newfoundland is the most easterly part of Canada, while the vast region of Labrador is largely inaccessible. The Canadian constitution was amended to make this happen. It contains the Churchill River, the largest river in Labrador and one of the largest in Canada. In 1949, Newfoundland entered into confederation, becoming part of Canada (see above articles for full information). There is a raw, untouc… Labrador (/ˈlæbrəˌdɔːr/ LAB-rə-dor) is a geographic and cultural region within the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. According to the 2011 Census, Labrador was 55.1% White, 18.5% Inuit, 15.6% Metis, and 8.6% First Nations (Innu). The Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador. Formerly known as just “Newfoundland” when it was a colony, dominion, and province, in 2001 they officially changed the name to Newfoundland and Labrador to reflect the larger chunk of land on the continental mainland. Interrupted drainage systems throughout the province have created extensive peat bogs. They gave this "new land" its Latin name Terranova. In Labrador there are three such sub-regions: a northern coastal region, which is ruggedly mountainous, deeply fjorded, grow… It is the one place to find all government services and information. Somewhere off the beaten path, where big game roam free. Together with the small community of Wabush, the two towns are known as "Labrador West". Mr. Haiar, thanks for the A2A First, one will notice the coldest expected temperatures on the Island are moderated by the ocean and somewhat warmer than inland Canada in winter and much warmer than a Wisconsin winter. Newfoundland and Labrador officially became Canada’s 10th province less than a year later. There's much to see in the Tundra of Labrador (often called \"the Big Land\"), the \"mini-Rockies\" of the West Coast's Long Range Mountains and Lewis Hills, the historic Avalon Peninsula, home to the capital of St. John's. Separated by the Strait of Belle Isle, the Island of Newfoundland is combined with mainland Labrador. Conceivably, if built with federal aid, the 1949 terms of union would be amended to remove ferry service from Nova Scotia to Port aux Basques across the Cabot Strait. The province is physically divided into two major units of unequal area: the much larger mainland territory of Labrador to the north; and the smaller island of Newfoundland to the south. The Moravian Brethren of Herrnhut, Saxony, first came to the Labrador Coast in 1760 to minister to the migratory Inuit tribes there. This is believed to be João Fernandes. The province of Newfoundland and Labrador today is home to four peoples of Aboriginal ancestry: the Inuit, the Innu, the Mi'kmaq and the Southern Inuit of NunatuKavut (formerly the Labrador Inuit-Metis). Updates? Labrador has always been part of the colony and then the Dominion of Newfoundland prior to Newfoundland joining Canada in 1949. On the west coast the land rises abruptly from a narrow coastal plain to the Long Range Mountains, which reach a maximum height of 2,670 feet (814 metres). The indented coastline has countless offshore islands, fjords, and coves, exposed and barren headlands, and relatively lush river valleys. 521,542. The first COVID-19 vaccines will be administered to dedicated frontline me… @nlliberals RT @FureyAndrew: Honoured to witness the historic moment of the first shipment of COVID-19 vaccine arriving in Newfoundland and Labrador … Of perhaps greater significance have been the great fish stocks that inhabited the Grand Banks and other fishing grounds to the east and south of Newfoundland, spurring the development of numerous communities stretched along some 14,400 miles (23,200 km) of deeply indented wave-battered seacoast. Most of Newfoundland and Labrador shows the effects of continental glaciation during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). In October 1943, a German U-boat crew installed an automated weather station on the northern tip of Labrador near Cape Chidley, code-named Weather Station Kurt; the installation of the equipment was the only-known armed German military operation on the North American mainland during the war. The plateau is undulating and dotted with thousands of lakes and ponds, numerous streams, and rivers, including the Exploits, Gander, and Humber. They founded Nain, Okak, Hebron, Hopedale and Makkovik. The station broadcast weather observations to the German navy for only a few days, but was not discovered until the 1980s when a historian, working with the Canadian Coast Guard, identified its location and mounted an expedition to recover it. It is the largest and northernmost geographical region in Atlantic Canada. Using the elements the committee had found to be uppermost in the minds of the public, Newfoundland artist, Christopher Pratt, drafted many proposals, six of which he submitted to the committee. A study on a fixed link to Newfoundland, in 2004, recommended that a tunnel under the Strait of Belle Isle, being a single railway that would carry cars, buses and trucks, was technologically the best option for such a link. It is separated from Labrador by the narrow Strait of Belle Isle and from Nova Scotia, to the southwest, by Cabot Strait. From Cape Chidley to Hamilton Inlet, the long, thin, northern tip of Labrador holds the Torngat Mountains, named after an Inuit spirit believed to inhabit them. As part of the Atlantic Growth Strategy, the Newfoundland and Labrador Immigration Plan was created, which plans to run for five years (2017-2022). HIGH SCHOOL REPORTS: P.E.I. Prior to the 1995 Quebec sovereignty referendum, Parti Québécois Premier Jacques Parizeau indicated that, in the event of a "yes" vote, a sovereign Quebec under his leadership would recognise the 1927 border. The flooding of the reservoir destroyed large areas of habitat for the threatened Woodland Caribou. That's the kind of souvenir that won't fit in your carry-on. Located on the southeastern part of the Avalon Peninsula, the Irish Loop is the heart of Irish culture and heritage in Newfoundland and Labrador. A Cormack business is hoping to be a big part of a provincial initiative to open up the market for Newfoundland ... it would be the first federal facility of its kind in Newfoundland and Labrador. And in Newfoundland and Labrador, ours are the best of the best. Most of Labrador (from Cartwright north and west) uses Atlantic Time (UTC−4 in winter, UTC−3 in summer). It is also the location of four 16th-century Spanish galleons. However, the study also concluded that a fixed link was not economically viable. Labrador played strategic roles during both World War II and the Cold War. Today the remaining stations are automated as part of the North Warning System, however the military settlements during the early part of the Cold War surrounding these stations have largely continued as local Innu and Inuit populations have clustered near their port and airfield facilities. Nevertheless, the watersheds of the larger rivers contain deeper surface deposits that support the growth of excellent forest stands, and the province has pockets of arable mineral soils that support agriculture. It was an alternate landing zone for the United States' Space Shuttle. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Why aren't Newfoundland and Labrador independent provinces in Canada and recognized as one province? It is believed that the Norsemen were the first Europeans to sight Labrador around 1000 AD, but no Norse remains have been found on the North American mainland. At the time, Newfoundland and Labrador was not yet part of Canada. On the extreme northeast promontory of North America, Maggiolo place-names include Terra de los Ingres (Land of the English), and Terra de Lavorador de rey de portugall (Land of Lavrador of the King of Portugal). In the far north the Torngat Mountains rise abruptly from the sea to a height of 5,420 feet (1,652 metres) at Mount Caubvick (Mount D’Iberville), on the Labrador-Quebec border. A southern extension of this highway has opened in stages during the early 2000s and is resulting in significant changes to the coastal ferry system in the Strait of Belle Isle and southeastern Labrador. 2001: The province officially changes its name to, 2007: The province and Federal Government of Canada sign an agreement to establish, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 17:36. The Torngat Mountain range is also home to Mount Caubvick, the highest point in the province. Area 156,453 square miles (405,212 square km). TechNL, industry organizations team up for Newfoundland and Labrador innovation centre Updated Dec 17, 2020 at 7:20 p.m. FFAW, Grieg NL and Barry Group on … (2016) 519,716; (2019 est.) Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. That same year the coast of Labrador was added to Newfoundland. MV Kamutik, a passenger ferry between the mainland and St. Barbe on the island of Newfoundland, is based in Blanc Sablon, Quebec, near the Labrador border. [citation needed], Some of the Innu nation would have the area become a homeland for them, much as Nunavut is for the Inuit, as a good portion of Nitassinan falls within Labrador's borders; a 1999 resolution of the Assembly of First Nations claimed Labrador as a homeland for the Innu and demanded recognition in any further constitutional negotiations regarding the region.[12]. Once a refuelling point for plane convoys to Europe during World War II, CFB Goose Bay is now operated as a NATO tactical flight training site. A transmission line began construction in October 2014 and was completed in 2016 that will deliver power down to the southern tip of Labrador and underwater across the strait of Belle Isle to the Province of Newfoundland in 2018.[7]. In 1948, just over 52 percent of the population voted to join Canada, while nearly 48 percent wanted Newfoundland and Labrador to remain independent. For Quebec, this border has thus never been definitively defined. Lewis, NunatuKavut is the territory of the NunatuKavummiut or Central-Southern Labrador Inuit (formerly known as the Labrador Métis). The aboriginal peoples of Labrador include the Northern Inuit of Nunatsiavut, the Southern Inuit-Métis of NunatuKavut, and the Innu of Nitassinan.[2]. [18] Notably the Polar bear, Ursus maritimus, reaches the southeast of Labrador on its seasonal movements. L'Anse-au-Clair is a small town on the Labrador side of the border. Newfoundland and Labrador reported no new cases of COVID-19 on Monday, a day after reporting 10 over the weekend. It is separated from the island of Newfoundland by the Strait of Belle Isle. Gov.nl.ca is the official website for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Labrador is bordered to the north and east by the Labrador Sea (northwestern arm of the Atlantic Ocean) and to the south and west by the province of Quebec. It includes portions of Central and Western Labrador, but more NunatuKavummiut reside in its South Coast portion: it is peppered with tiny Inuit fishing communities, of which Cartwright is the largest. Professor Emeritus of History, Memorial University, St. James, Newfoundland. Its location in the northeastern corner of North America is closer to Europe than any other part of the continent. Lands that drain into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, while lands that drain into Hudson Bay are part of Quebec. Other major communities in the area are North West River and the large reserve known as Sheshatshiu. Labrador is referred to as The Big Land, and for good reason. Labrador constitutes a federal electoral district electing one member to the House of Commons of Canada. The island, which was named the “newfoundelande,” or New Found Land, by late 15th-century explorers, lies athwart the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Construction of a large hydroelectric dam project at Muskrat Falls began in 2012 by Nalcor Energy and the Province of Newfoundland. The beauty of Newfoundland can be found on the rocky coasts of the island and the relatively new, and stunningly beautiful East Coast Trail, but this is a truly coast-to-coast kind of place. During the 1960s, the Churchill River (Labrador name: Grand River) was diverted at Churchill Falls, resulting in the flooding of an enormous area – today named the Smallwood Reservoir after Joey Smallwood, the first premier of Newfoundland. Most of the Upper Canadian and Lower Hudsonian mammalian species are found in Labrador. Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly part of North America, and its position on the Atlantic has given it a strategic importance in defense, transportation, and communications. 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