In 1705, as a mark of favor, the emperor ordered Cao, an accomplished scholar, to compile all shi (lyric poems) surviving from the Tang dynasty. ), This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 14:03. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971065', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 250] }}, params: { Over the course of the dynasty, even vigorous administration could not prevent the accumulation of problems. Before the government held an absolute monopoly of salt industry and would not legitimate salt producers' direct transaction to the merchants, until it encountered a serious financial shortage of salt manufacture. Payments to the foreign banks were maintained, but at great cost. "loggedIn": false The Judge sent to the upper world for one Wang Shi, a village salt peddler. Chinese use a lot of salt. 盐,食盐. From 1913 to 1918 it was led by Sir Richard Dane, a British citizen and experienced administrator retired from the Salt Excise in India, where he had been called “the salt king.” Dane was, in the words of one writer, “a British colonial cliché,” complete with a bushy moustache and walking stick, who might have provoked nationalist opposition. salt and pepper 盐和胡椒粉. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Chinese traditional Dictionary. {code: 'ad_rightslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, googletag.pubads().setTargeting("sfr", "cdo_dict_english-chinese-traditional"); { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, [37], Writers turned to poetry and fiction to continue a debate which had been started centuries earlier by Guanzi and the Han dynasty Discourses on Salt and Iron: practical men argued that monopoly revenues helped the state to carry out its mission while Confucian critics argued that government monopolies made some groups rich and left others poor and exploited, and that salt taxes afflicted the people and encouraged expansionary wars which would doom the empire. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot' }}, Douchi, which was found in a tomb dated 165 BC, is salted and fermented soy beans, the oldest food made from that product. To begin with, the Ming government inherited from the Mongols not a unified national system but a dozen or more regional monopolies, each of which had a different production center, none of which was allowed to distribute salt to the others. [7] The earliest surviving record of salt production in what is now China is a text from roughly 800 BCE which reports that the much earlier (and perhaps mythical) Xia dynasty reduced sea water for salt. The index of one authoritative Chinese cookbook lists nine recipes with "salt" in the title. The Huai river ran through Northern Jiangsu, the location of coastal salt marshes which were the major source of salt. Nevertheless, the system had been changed and the bureaucracy of the dynasty showed a greater ability to adapt than later critics gave it credit for. "Regional Control in the Southern Sung Salt Administration." }; { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_leftslot_160x600' }}, In the broader Lianghuai region altogether some 369,000 people were employed, including 230,000 laborers in the salt fields. var dfpSlots = {}; By the 1960s, old style methods of producing salt gave way to large scale production in state owned factories. They revived the ten zone system set up in the Song dynasty which the Ming inherited from the Yuan, and continued the merchant-official alliance. {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50]] } }, [34][32], The methods of payment from the government differed throughout the Ming period, but included grain, money, subsidies, and decreased or voided land tax. 'increment': 0.01, salt noun (FOOD) A1 [ U ] a common white substance found in sea water and in the ground, used especially to add flavour to food or to preserve it. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_topslot_mobile_flex' }}, This monopoly price was an indirect tax which was reliably collected in advance without having to control the areas where the salt was consumed. We’ve compiled a list of some of Chinese ingredients we use most often, so if you have a question (e.g. The government believed that this congregational salt production allowed the officials to conveniently control the amount of fuel, iron plates, and salt produced so that they were able to prevent the trade of contraband salt. Chinese vegetable pickles may be either fermented or marinated, most famously in Pao cai from cabbage, or Zha cai (pressed vegetable), also known as Sichuan vegetable. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, enableSendAllBids: false, 'cap': true { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_mobile_flex' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776160', position: 'atf' }}, 'pa pdd chac-sb tc-bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25' : 'hdn'">, salado, salado/da [masculine-feminine, singular]…. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_leftslot' }}]}, }); [58], At the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, Japanese troops quickly seized the salterns in North China. A POPULAR Chinese takeaway dish contains five times more salt than a Big Mac, experts have warned. The "poor man's food" has become ironically true, as it is on the list of Group 1 known … { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, They were covered by lava and were enveloped in ice and snow for millennia. var pbHdSlots = [ Needham, Joseph, and Colin Ronan, “Salt industry and Deep Borehole Drilling,” in Brian Hook and Denis Crispin Twitchett, eds.. Song, Yingxing, translated and introduced by E. Tu Zen Sun and Shiou-Chuan Sun. Condiments on the arrows to change the translation here tax which was collected! By needy local governments, or salt placed on the patient 's skin the! I use two spices in the center of the Tang using proceeds from the state 's monopoly salt! Preserved or cured with salt patrols to gain profit from contraband salt, 1942-1946 ) bamboo,... Where they would receive a quota on the patient 's skin ( cheonilyeom, 천일염 ) the... 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